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Change in the statutory test methods for consumption, emissions and pollutants.

More everyday relevance. Less ambiguity.

In 1992, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC for short) was introduced. Since then, this procedure has been used to determine the fuel consumption and emission values of vehicles. However, the conditions of this laboratory test are disadvantageous in determining realistic consumption and emission values.

From September 2018, therefore a new driving cycle called WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure) is to replace the NEDC.

This laboratory test will also be supplemented by an emissions test that measures pollutants directly on the road: RDE (Real Driving Emissions).

The new test procedures will enable consumers to better estimate their vehicle’s fuel consumption and emissions in the future.

From NEDC to WLTP.


The new procedure of WLTP is based on an approximation of the test conditions to real-world circumstances, which means that the values determined will also have a greater relevance to reality. Among the changes this involves are redefined, significantly stricter test conditions and higher speeds together with a substantially longer test duration (30 instead of 20 minutes).

To obtain a more precise determination of CO2 emissions, the new test procedure includes not only standard equipment – as was previously the case – but also all special equipment options of a vehicle. This produces two values for each type of vehicle: the lowest and highest possible standard consumption value according to aerodynamics, weight and rolling resistance. Thanks to WLTP, you will be able to better assess a vehicle’s consumption and CO2 emissions in the future. In the case of a specific vehicle configuration the individual standard value will be indicated directly. In spite of the great accuracy, deviations are of course also possible with this test procedure. Everyday consumption and CO2 emissions continue to be subject to the different conditions of topography, climate and personal driving technique. The traffic situation, the current load carried and the use of devices such as the air conditioning system are further influences on the consumption of a vehicle. One thing is clear: the test conditions are more than realistic than before, which means that higher fuel consumption and CO2 values as well as lower ranges for electric vehicles can be expected on paper. However, this will not have any adverse effect on the real fuel consumption or range. Furthermore, the BMW Group is always working on new technologies in order to improve consumption and range.

MINI is already working on the transition to the new test procedure and is preparing its product portfolio step by step with new vehicles, new engine versions or technical revisions. This will ensure that all vehicles within the entire fleet of the BMW Group comply with the applicable legislative framework at all times.

From September 2017, the WLTP will be compulsory for new type approvals. However, the legislator specifies that the values measured with WLTP will initially be communicated with a calculation translating it back to NEDC values. The EU Commission has developed a correlation technique for this purpose, which will be binding to an equal extent on all vehicle manufacturers. This phase is intended to simplify the transition. Its duration will depend on the respective national legislation and will thus vary from market to market.

From September 2018, all manufacturers will be obliged to test in accordance with WLTP for vehicles sold in the EU as well as in Switzerland, Turkey, Norway, Liechtenstein, Israel.

Finally, by December 2020, all countries that adopt the EU legislation for vehicle will have to indicate and communicate WLTP values for all vehicles.

“ The new test will ensure that lab measurements better reflect the on-road performance of a car.”*

– European Automobile Manufacturers Association



Find out about the relevant facts on the transition to the new WLTP.


These are the specific differences between the old and new test procedure.

Test procedure
Test duration
20 min.
30 min.
Test distance
11 km
23.5 km
Time spent stationary
Test phases
Urban/Extra-urban, (combined)
Low, Medium, High, Extra high, (Combined); (plus “City” for electric vehicles and vehicles with plug-in hybrid drivetrain)
Average: 34 km/h Maximum: 120 km/h Average: 46.6 km/h Maximum: 131 km/h
Start Temperature
20–30° C Cold engine start 14° C (tested at 23° C corrected for 14° C) Cold engine start
Special equipment options
Not taken into consideration
All equipment options are considered in terms of their influence on aerodynamics, weight and rolling resistance.



In addition to WLTP, RDE (Real Driving Emissions) will also be compulsory for all vehicle manufacturers in the EU as well as in Switzerland, Turkey, Norway, Liechtenstein, Israel from September 2018. In these RDE tests, the pollutant emissions such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are measured directly on the road. This method determines average emission values that can be expected during everyday driving.

In order to further reduce these pollutant values, MINI employs various technologies for reducing exhaust emission in its models.

The BMW BluePerformance measures, for example, reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides in diesel engines. MINI is using devices known as nitrogen oxide (NOx) storage catalytic convertors in order to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, and depending on the model, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with AdBlue® – a urea solution – converts up to 90% of the nitrogen oxides into water vapour and similarly harmless nitrogen.

The BMW Group was the first manufacturer to introduce the combination of NOx storage catalytic converter and SCR system into series production. Since 2006, diesel vehicles have additionally been equipped with particulate filters as standard in order to reduce particulate matter. In petrol-engine models, too, special particulate filters are gradually being introduced.

In this way, MINI is able to comply with the low threshold limit values of the EU6c exhaust emissions standard, which is compulsory for all new vehicles as from September 2018. The EU6c exhaust emissions standard prescribes lower particulate limits for petrol-engine vehicles compared to EU6b. The same limits apply for diesel-engine vehicles within the cycle for both EU6b and EU6c.


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The EU exhaust emissions standard defines the valid limits for exhaust emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter within the EU. The limits vary according to engine and type of vehicle. For the benefit of climate protection and air quality, the limits undergo increasing intensification. This confronts automobile manufacturers with new challenges.

Your Questions. Our Answers.

What is WLTP?

The abbreviation WLTP stands for “Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure”. 

This involves a new test procedure for a more realistic determination of fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of vehicles that will be legally binding for all vehicles as of September 2018. WLTP will replace the previously applicable NEDC procedure.

> Further information is available here


What is the WLTP driving cycle?

A vehicle’s consumption and emissions depend on driving style among other factors. This is why driving data have been compiled for WLTP around the world. These data were used to define 4 representative phases with different average speeds: low, medium, high and extra-high. Within each of these phases, there are different intensities of acceleration, braking and stopping in order to depict situations with a relevance to everyday driving style. The combination of these phases then results in the driving cycle, which is communicated as a combined value in the manufacturer’s details. As electric and hybrid vehicles are used particularly within urban areas, their driving cycle contains a 5th phase: the City phase. This results from the average speeds of low and medium.

How is MINI dealing with the new methods involved in WLTP?

MINI is already working on the transition to the new test procedure and is preparing its product portfolio step-by-step with new vehicles, new engine versions or technical revisions. This will then ensure that all vehicles within the entire BMW fleet comply with the conditions of their respective legal framework at all times.

As a matter of principle: vehicles of the BMW Group comply with the respective legal requirements. The relevant results from national and international official investigations confirm this.

What does WLTP mean for me?

Introduction of WLTP will mean that the fuel consumption and CO2 values indicated will approximate those in real-world operation. Irrespective of this, taking into account individual special equipment in WLTP will additionally lead to more realistic values as they are based on your personal vehicle configuration. At the same time, however, more realistic values will also mean higher consumption and CO2 values for vehicles with combustion engines and a lower electric range for electric vehicles (including plug-in hybrids). Depending on national legislation, higher CO2 taxes may result. 

> Further information is available here 

What is RDE?

The abbreviation RDE stands for "Real Driving Emissions". This is a new procedure for determining pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter. The crucial feature is that measurement takes place on the road under realistic driving conditions and not in the laboratory. A device known as a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS for short) is attached to the exhaust of the test vehicle for this purpose.

> Further information is available here

What is EU6?

Euro 6 is the name of the current exhaust emission standard for pollutants. It defines lower maximum values for particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions than EU5. From September 2018*, the EU6c emission standard will become compulsory, and in comparison to EU6b it specifies even lower limits for the content of particulate matternumber in petrol-engine vehicles. The same threshold limit values apply for diesel-engine vehicles within the cycle for both EU6b and EU6c. EU6d-TEMP from September 2019* and EU6d from January 2021* will again slightly lower the threshold limit values for the number of particles and nitrogen oxides in line with RDE.
*Applies to new vehicles. New vehicle types will each be subject to the new exhaust emission standards 1 year earlier.

What does selective catalytic reduction (SCR) mean?

So that the exhaust emission values of a vehicle can be further reduced, liquid ammonia, called AdBlue®, is fed into diesel engines' exhaust system. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with AdBlue® reduces up to 90% of the nitrogen oxides. What remains is water vapour, nitrogen and CO2. What remains is water vapour, nitrogen and CO2. 

What is BluePerformance?

MINI uses BluePerformance technology to reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions of its vehicles even further. This technology allows the emissions performance of the diesel engine to be further optimised. In addition to the diesel particulate filter and NOx storage catalytic converter, in some models the SCR catalytic converter (SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction) with AdBlue® injection guarantees a significant reduction in nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases.



What is a particle filter?

The particle filter is a measure for reducing particulate matter present in diesel engines and petrol engines.